Since man first began recording his deeds, Egypt has been a land where it is difficult to tread without stepping into history. In early times, Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, Upper and Lower Egypt, which were united for the first time around 3200 BC by the first king of the first dynasty, Menes.
Egypt spans North-East Africa and the Peninsula of Sinai in Asia. Egypt has shorelines on the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. It borders Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, and the Gaza Strip and Israel to the east.
Egypt is one of the most populated countries not only in the African continent but also in the Middle East and in the Arab world. According to the 2006 census conducted by government's statistics agency, the population of Egypt has sprung up to 72.6 million with a growth rate of 2.0 percent each year in the past decade.
Egypt’s climate is easy to summarise: hot and dry, with the exception of the winter months of December, January and February, which can be quite cold in the north. Average temperatures range from 20°C (68°F) on the Mediterranean coast to 26°C (80°F) in Aswan. Maximum temperatures for the same places can get up to 31°C (88°F) and 50°C (122°F), respectively.